A Standards-Based Technology Elementary School Curriculum

 

Yanaka Bernal

EDUC 685

Dr. Fred Hofstetter

Summer 2005

Abstract

The author explores the national perspective on technology education standards as well as examines Delaware’s position on technology education and current academic standards. Using these three sources, the paper aligns computer skills with the standards to frame an elementary level technology curriculum. This curriculum and plan will eventually be implemented in an elementary school in northern Delaware.

 

Table of Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Underlying Philosophy

Delaware

Developing the Curriculum

Teacher Curriculum and Development

Student Curriculum and Development

Fourth Grade Unit Scope and Sequence – Urban Sprawl

Proposed Curriculum

Reference

 

Back to the Table of Contents

Introduction

 

            This paper is a review of Technology and Computer standards. The final purpose of this paper is to design a working curriculum and development plan to be implemented in an elementary school in northern Delaware.

The population of the target school is approximately 550 students composed of 75% White, 12% Asian American, 9% African American, and 3.4% Hispanic. The school is located in a semi-urban area, drawing students from both rural and urban homes. The school has recently lost 23% of its population to the opening of a new school. (Linden Hill Elementary)

Children, grades one through five, received instruction focusing on computing and the application of computing skills for 45 minutes once or twice a week. Technology has been taught by three different individuals with varying computing skill levels. No formalized curriculum was followed although lessons sought to enrich academic skills. Fourth and fifth grade students received instruction from one individual with strong computing skills. Students were introduced to a wide range of software, peripheries, and web applications. Younger grades received training in using mice, monitors, and limited software programs. Classroom activities dovetailed technology class instruction upon request of the classroom teachers. 

The administration has budgeted instructional units to develop programs that are attractive to families with strong interest in academic achievement. It is the goal of the administration to aggressively explore how technology can be more fully integrated in the classroom while enhancing computing skills through systematic and consistent instruction. It is with this intent that a “formalized technology” program is being added to the related arts program:

1.                          The program should promote and support academic subjects through the use of computers and peripheries.

2.                          Technology should reflect and support classroom activity.

3.                          Technology should offer opportunities to explore alternative means to teach classroom concepts.

4.                          Technology should teach skills to prepare students for middle school, high school and beyond. 

 

Back to the Table of Contents

Underlying Philosophy

 

Succinctly written, technology is the application of scientific discovery. To create a working definition of technology, it is the formalized study of applying diversified thought through the application of scientific discovery. Teaching technology is the discipline of guiding students to make connections across curricular areas by applying scientific discovery. Scientific discovery is the creation of tools or means that enhance human senses. Tools enhance human senses. It is in this context in which the words technology, teaching technology (or teach technology) scientific discovery, and tools will be addressed throughout this paper.

National Standards Perspective

 

In the last 22 years, most states in in the United States have adopted academic standards for specific areas of instruction. All but two states list academic standards on their Department of Education web sites. Of the 48 states, listing academic standards, all listed reading and mathematics standards. (Other State's DOEs, 2005) Yet, as a whole, American education has taken a pause when drafting standards for “technological” tools.

Standards writers are faced with limited and restricted means to answer fundamental questions surrounding computers and technology.  What is technology? Should we call computers technology?  What will our students need to know in 5, 10, or 20 years? How should students use computers? How should we educate our educators about computers and technology? How should teachers use computers and technology in the classroom?

In June of 1998, the National Education Technology Standards Project (NETS) unveiled six technology driven standards by which to direct curriculum development. This document was entitled “Technology Foundation Standards”. (Technology Foundation Standards) The standards sought to weave skills, design application, and problem solving together. If a student could demonstrate competency in all of the performance indicators, the student would be “technologically literate”. 

Standard

Performance Indicator

1. Basic Operations and Concepts

  1. Students demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature and operation of technology systems.
  2. Students are proficient in the use of technology.

2. Social, Ethical, and Human Issues

  1. Students understand the ethical, cultural, and societal issues related to technology.
  2. Students practice responsible use of technology systems, information, and software.
  3. Students develop positive attitudes toward technology uses that support lifelong learning, collaboration, personal pursuits, and productivity.

3. Technology Productivity Tools

  1. Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity.
  2. Students use productivity tools to collaborate in constructing technology-enhanced models, prepare publications, and produce other creative works.

4. Technology Communications Tools

  1. Students use telecommunications to collaborate, publish, and interact with peers, experts, and other audiences.
  2. Students use a variety of media and formats to communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences.

5. Technology Research Tools

  1. Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources.
  2. Students use technology tools to process data and report results.
  3. Students evaluate and select new information resources and technological innovations based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

6. Technology Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making Tools

  1. Students use technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions.
  2. Students employ technology in the development of strategies for solving problems in the real world.

 

 (Technology Foundation Standards)

Back to the Table of Contents

The NETS Project developed the standards to work hand-in-hand with standards from other academic subject areas. NETS outlines conditions for successful application of the standards stressing that “technology” cannot be taught in isolation. Using the NETS model, a classroom successfully implementing the standards has moved away from lectured lessons and the lone classroom computer sitting on the teacher’s desk. The computers are used to connect students, teachers, and active resources. NETS also emphasizes that educators must be willing participants in the process and that standards must have full administrative support and interaction. The chart below demonstrates the resulting effect of correctly applied technology:

ESTABLISHING NEW LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
Incorporating New Strategies

Traditional Learning
Environments

New Learning
Environments

 

Teacher-centered instruction

Student-centered learning

Single sense stimulation

Multisensory stimulation

Single path progression

Multipath progression

Single media

Multimedia

Isolated work

Collaborative work

Information delivery

Information Exchange

Passive learning

Active/exploratory/inquiry-based learning

Factual, knowledge-based learning

Critical thinking and informed decision-making

Reactive response

Proactive/planned action

Isolated, artificial context

Authentic, real-world context

Technology foundation standards

            While reviewing the technology standards of the different states, it is apparent that the NETS framework has been considered and, to some degree, adopted by most of the states. (Other State's DOEs, 2005) Most states attempt to blend future technological unknowns and current computer skills with problem solving. Most states recognized that technology education cannot be taught in isolation and must be used to direct and enrich traditional curriculum. On a state-to-state basis, what is striking is that technology training for teachers, using the NETS model, is not as well developed as the student model. Many states offer teacher, online PowerPoint self-help tutorials, FAQ discussion boards, and software courses. During the course of writing this paper, not one state department of education web site offered a link to formalized NETS teacher training.

Back to the Table of Contents

Delaware

 

            Delaware has yet to clearly define how its public school teachers should approach technology as well as computers. Organizations associated with Delaware’s Department of Education have published documents indicating that Delaware recognizes the difference between technology and computing. Delaware has defined computer skills but thus far has not drafted a formalized technology program. Beginning in 2003 the Red Clay School District launched a pilot program, entitled Loti, to measure and develop technology use in the classroom. (Moersch) The Loti program reached a statewide level in 2004. The separation of computer skills and classroom application appears to be a unique model on a state-to-state level.

In 2005, the Delaware Center for Technology Education (DCET) finalized a set of computer skills (“Computer Skills Growth Chart”), which delineate a level of competence a student, should master throughout their scholastic experience. DCET’s “INTEGRATE” Committee, the authors of the “Computer Skills Growth Chart”, purposefully narrowed the scope of the document to a set of computer-based skills while briefly mentioning technology and curriculum. The chart encompasses skills that, in 2005, a graduating senior would need to secure employment in today’s job market. The preamble of the document states that the purpose of “the CHART is intended as a planning aid and a vehicle to support discussion of technology integration across the curriculum to help students develop 21st century skills”. (Delaware Center for Educational Technology 2005)

Computer Skills Growth Chart

 

E-mail & Internet

Network & Computing Skills

Word Processing

Graphics & Presentation

Spreadsheets & Databases

8

Manage an address book including individuals and groups.  Save email and organize into folders.  Organize bookmarks.

Basic troubleshooting.

 

Resize or crop graphics.

Can use absolute and relative addressing in spreadsheets.  Can use Boolean techniques to search.  (AND, OR)

7

Send and read attachments.  Search for information using teacher-selected tools.

Navigate file system (local and network)

Use outline tools.

Capture a picture to the computer using a digital camera or scanner.

Can format and print a worksheet (page setup).

6

Create bookmarks and use them as navigation tools.

Manage directories.  Use search or find to locate a file or program.

Add headers, footers, and page numbers to documents.  Flow text around an image or table.  Use grammar check.  Find and replace.

 

Can replicate formulas across a row or down a column.  Can create graphs and charts from data.

5

Send, reply, forward and cc an email independently.

Multitask by switching among open windows.  Log on to the network using a student name according to local policy.  Copy, cut and paste between windows or documents.

Format page layout (margins, tabs, orientation, page breaks).  Create a table.  Use a thesaurus.

Create a multimedia presentation using a blank document.  Use animation and transitions to enhance a presentation.

Can create simple formulas.  Can format data (decimal places, percentage).  Can search a database by specifying the value of particular fields.

 

4

Enter a URL to reach a site.  Search for information using teacher-selected sites.

Minimize, maximize and restore windows.  Make folders.

Edit text (cut, copy, paste, move).  Create bulleted or numbered list.

Import a picture to the

computer using a

digital camera or

scanner. Resize or

crop graphics.

Can use a spreadsheet to do simple calculations (sum, average, etc.).  Can insert and delete rows and columns.

3

 

Launch a program using a menu.  Create, open and close a file.  Save to and retrieve a file.

Format text (size, font, style, color, alignment).  Use spell check and dictionary.

Insert clipart or a graphic into a document.  Reorder slides in a presentation.

Can perform arithmetic calculations in a spreadsheet.  Can sort data.

2

Use bookmarks to reach teacher-selected sites.

Print from within a program.

Edit by inserting and deleting.  Key in a paragraph with word wrap, capital letters, and punctuation

Draw and manipulate a picture using a graphics program.

Can locate a spreadsheet cell by its row and column address.  Can adjust sizes of rows and columns.

1

Use the browser navigation tools (back, forward, refresh, stop).

Handle CDs, discs, and other media appropriately.

Understand cursor placement.  Key in phrases or sentences with proper spacing.

 

Can enter and edit text and numeric data.

K

Follow a link.

Use a mouse.  Start up and shut down a computer properly.  Launch a program from an icon.

Key in letters to form words.

 

 

(Delaware Center for Educational Technology 2005).

Back to the Table of Contents

Pat Sine, from the University of Delaware, sat on the INTEGRATE committee from the project inception to the final document. On her web site, Ms. Sine notes that, “Reasonably skilled, well-intentioned teachers are stymied in trying to create lessons that incorporate technology up to the performance indicators described in NETS and that help students meet the Delaware and national standards”. (Sine, 2001) Where the INTEGRATE committee mentions NETS, there is no link or other information about how to access the standards. The approach to this chart may be the introduction of technology related application in smaller, incremental steps that will eventually develop into a more fully defined set of technology standards.

            As a classroom teacher, the INTEGRATE committee’s intent to guide rather than mandate is laudable and appreciated. However, there is a concern that the chart is not addressing skills that a student may need that have yet to be developed. In addition, programming and basic hardware maintenance is excluded from the skills list. Furthermore, established and emerging technologies allow children to become active, directed participants in their own learning. These are not mentioned in the chart or corresponding documentation. The chart does not indicate resources for teachers to use to help implement these skills in the classroom. Segregating skills from a contextual environment may undermine the simplicity of the INTEGRATE committee’s original intention.

In an effort heighten awareness of teacher technology use in the classroom, Delaware began using the Loti Survey on a statewide level in 2004.  All public school, classroom teachers and administrators took the Loti survey. This survey indicates an individual teacher’s use of technology in the classroom. The survey results indicate the teacher’s educational philosophy as he or she uses technology. The more closely the teacher is aligned with Dewian philosophies and applying Bloom’s Taxonomy, the better he or she will score.  If the teacher requires the students to use technology as a tool, the teacher will score even higher. If the teacher allows for student directed learning using technology, the teacher may score the highest possible score of six. Teachers are scored on their knowledge of computers, their educational philosophies, as well as their use of technologies within the classroom.

 

LoTi Framework Characteristics and Benchmarks

LoTi Level

General
Technology Use

Specific Characteristics

0
Nonuse

  

  • No technology use
  • Perception that technology use has no value to learning

1
Awareness

 

  • No student use of technology tied to content
  • Computer is a reward station for non-content-related work
  • Technology is used mostly by teacher/facilitator

2
Exploration

Teacher-centered

  • Lower order thinking skills (i.e., knowledge, comprehension)
  • Focus is strictly on content understanding.

3
Infusion

Teacher-centered

  • Higher order thinking skills (i.e., application, analysis, synthesis & evaluation)
  • Focus is on the content and the process
  • Teaching may be learner-centered

4
Integration

4a- Mechanical
4b-Routine

Student-centered

  • Students are applying learning to real world
  • Learning becomes authentic and relevant
  • 4a - teacher experiences management concerns
  • 4b - teacher is in comfort zone
  • Teaching is student-centered

5
Expansion

Student-centered

  • Same as level 4
  • Two-way collaboration with community
  • Multiple technologies in use

6
Refinement

Student-centered

  • Same as level 5
  • Infrastructure and funding are in place

(Moersch, 2004)

The desired outcome of the program is to guide teachers to create lessons involving higher-level thinking, while encouraging student use of computers to solve “real-life” problems. Teachers are given their score as a baseline to motivate them to become more active users of computers in the classroom. The LotiLouge is a site where teachers can peruse computer-based lessons rated at different Loti levels. (Moersch) The program does not offer teachers a means to learn and improve computer skills or how to actually create a higher-level lesson.

What is interesting about the INTEGRATE document and the Loti survey is that the two do not seem to support or acknowledge the other as a tool to more effectively meet the other’s goals. The Delaware Center for Educational Technology, the sponsoring organization for the INTEGRATE committee, does include Loti information on its website.

Back to the Table of Contents

Developing the Curriculum

 

After reviewing the different standards presented by national and state organizations, the proposed “technology” curriculum will loosely follow the NETS format. Again, using the NETS model, this program will address staff curriculum and development plan as well as student curriculum and development plan.

Teacher Curriculum and Development

 

The most critical aspect to this program is to ensure that all teachers, classroom and specialists, become involved in a continuous improvement plan to strengthen their computing skills. Without this support a student plan is less likely to succeed. The yearly Loti survey is the measurement tool to quantify year-to-year staff growth for overall computer competency. The 2004 Loti survey results place the target elementary school at a level 3 for “Personal Computer Use” (or PCU) and a level 4 for “Current Instructional Practices” (or CIP).  The school scored a level 3 for overall CPU and CIP use. This indicates that with the development of staff computing skills, the school’s overall Loti level has the potential to quickly move to a level 4 (with 3-4 year goal of a level 5). Without the continuous improvement of staff computing skills, the school-wide Loti levels will most likely remain at their present levels.

The teacher curriculum involves a “four-tiered” level of support and development as well as staff development, one-on-one development, and user-friendly tools. As teachers become more comfortable with computers, student and teacher interaction will catapult teacher and student learning.

As teachers interact with their students using computers, they will begin to develop higher-end computing skills. The table below demonstrates the activities associated with each level of interaction a teacher will encounter.

Level of interaction

Activity

Teachers interacting with Computers (TC)

  1. Teacher will be provided with web space
  2. Teachers will be trained to update websites
  3. Teachers will be provided with instruction on how to upload web material
  4. Teachers will be provided with instruction on how to integrate web-directed units
  5. Teachers will be provided with functioning computers and peripheries.
  6. Long-term vision- Teachers designing online lessons using Moodle

Teachers interacting with Student (TS)

  1. Website with class assignments and policy, and instruction materials
  2. Knowledge to guide students
  3. Assigning student online journals entries
  4. Instruction in subject areas to apply skill in authentic learning experiences
    1. WISE
    1. Kids Design Network - KDN (Grades 1-3)
    1. Project LEARN (Grades 1-5)
  1. Lessons using Moodle (long-term)
    1. Student online journals
    2. Wiki’s
    3. Discussion Boards

Student interacting with Student (SS)

  1. Grade level online magazines
  2. WIKIs’
  3. Discussion Boards
  4. Collaborative projects

Students interacting with Computers (SC)

  1. Instruction of computer skills
  2. Instruction with application of skills
  3. Instruction in subject areas to apply skill in authentic learning experiences
    1. WISE (Grades 4-5)
    2. Kids Design Network - KDN (Grades 1-3)
    3. Project LEARN (Grades 1-5)
  4. Provide computer based instruction that supports, reinforces, and enriches academic standards
  5. Lessons using Moodle (long-term)
    1. Student online journals
    2. Wiki’s
    3. Discussion Boards
    4. Grade level online magazines

Note: Computers can also signify peripheries.

Back to the Table of Contents

The above chart lists particular programs such as WISE (What is Wise), KDN (Teacher's Guide, 2005), and Project Learn. (Bernal, 2005) WISE and KDN are programs that have already been developed and are established with lesson plans, projects, and activities. Project Learn is a conservation program design in 2005 for a fifth grade classroom. The programs will serve as the focus for inquiry-based learning with technology.

Interviews with an elementary school teacher indicated a strong desire to have the ability to create a simple web page (E. Longacre, personal communication, 07, 2005) (M. Fong, personal communication, 07, 2005) (E. Keech, personal communication, 07, 2005).   The teacher’s desire to author a website was to promote communication with parents as well as posting safe websites for students. Teachers indicated that they find it difficult to have students key in the website addresses. Some URL’s are long and involve symbols unfamiliar to elementary age students. It would be easier to post links to a site and have the students access the sites from a computer rather than key in the address.

A simple content management program (cms) such as Drupal (Drupal.org, 2005), GeekLog (Welcome to Geek Log, 2005), or Xoops (The Official Xoops Page: Powered By You), are being considered to have teachers post links. A combination of all three cms programs may provide the best solution. All of the considered content management systems offer a simple login and posting feature. Drupal offers a simple, clean look with few extraneous features. This would be an ideal beginner program for a technologically inexperienced teacher. This interface would be the least difficult to master. Xoops features a few higher-end module tools to categorize links and secondary pages. GeekLog presents a wide range of tools such as wikis, document management, polls, link manager, calendar, site statistics. As the teacher progress technologically, he or she will still have a means to post safely and easily.

Red Clay’s Technology Integration Team (Technology Integration Team Web Site) requires that each school offer technology integration training on a building wide level. This training can be a large group session or an individual lesson. Training sessions are designed to address teacher computing skills as well as integrating technology in the classroom. The school’s Technology Integration Team chairperson created the Linden Cafe (Bernal, 2005) to assist with training as well as documentation, resource tools, and inter-staff communication.  This site was the collaborative work of the faculty’s technological needs. This site will continue to be maintained and developed to meet the faculty’s needs.

Back to the Table of Contents

Student Curriculum and Development

 The student curriculum will use a Loti framework on a 4 to 5 level to engage students to maximize interest and retention. The INTEGRATE skills chart will be used as a guide to determine age-appropriate skills for each grade. The technology curriculum will encompass lessons that tie academic standards with opportunities to enhance academic skills while reinforcing classroom activities.

The student curriculum will be based on an inquiry/project-based (Project-Based Learning Research, 2001) approach to learning using the “Scaffolded Knowledge Integration Framework”  (SKIF for short). Dr. Marcia Linn of the University of California, Berkeley developed the “Scaffolded Knowledge Integration Framework” for application in science related inquiry. (Linn, 1995)  SKIF designs active curriculum into a four tiered learning experience:

1.      Identifying New Goals for Science Learning: use accessible models for scientific concepts, helping students to connect new information to existing ideas and to problems that are both familiar and relevant.

2.      Making Thinking Visible: To facilitate understanding, concepts and ideas must be made explicit.

3.      Encouraging Autonomous Learning: ensure that students actively integrate science knowledge rather than adopting a rote approach to science learning.

4.      Providing Social Supports: student collaboration as a mechanism for encouraging autonomy and for fostering a classroom culture of inquiry and mutual respect. Students work together, most often in pairs, to share ideas and discuss scientific concepts with others

(KIE Tour: Scaffolded Knowledge Integration)

Although the original SKIF design was intended for science education, the concept of using computer tools to scaffold inquiry can be used across the curriculum. This framework takes a proactive stance toward cross-curricular integration. Aspects of scientific inquiry overlap with mathematics (graphing, interpolating, extrapolating, predicting,..), language and reading (decoding, non-fiction reading, predicting, skimming,…) social studies (civic action, researching,…). This framework supports and reinforces Delaware’s academic standards.

 The WISE website offers an array of tools to create lessons asking children to integrate knowledge from all aspects of their scholastic day. They then delve into more involved principles that are introduced in the technology classroom. The fourth grade land and water science unit presents a multitude of supplemental technology-related inquiry lessons. Run-off, erosion, and deposition, are all concepts associated with this unit and that have been headline issues for northern Delaware. The cause for the recent water issues is directly link to increased urbanization. WISE offers online tools unit that compel children to connect water’s effect on their own environment. The unit described in the below chart will cover an eight week period and will be taught in conjunction with the science unit.

Thus far, the proposed curriculum has only reviewed science related units. During the course of the school year, each grade cycles through five different types of units touching on each major academic area: math, ELA, reading, social studies, and science.  Each unit’s scope and sequence chart sequentially develops academic, technological, and computing skills. These units will change to fit the needs and interests of the teachers, students, and community.  Much of this curriculum will change and evolve as the needs of the students become more apparent. Many of the ideas for lessons are based on lessons that worked quite well in a fifth grade classroom.

Back to the Table of Contents

 

Fourth Grade Unit Scope and Sequence – Urban Sprawl

Eight Week Unit

Lesson Name

PI Number/ Concept/ Details

Technology Standards

Computer Skills Growth Chart

Computer/Periphery  Used

Activities

Defining Urban Sprawl

4.181 Identify, Locate, and Select use guide words, tables of content, index, and glossaries to obtain information in reference books.

1. Basic Operations and Concepts:

Students demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature and operation of technology systems.

Students are proficient in the use of technology.

Enter a URL to reach a site.  Search for information using teacher-selected sites.

Computers with internet. Using online dictionaries.

Children will view satellite images of heavily populated areas and

Different Types of Land Use

4.304 Earth and Space analyze NASA photographs and satellite images of the Earth, Moon, and other planets and identify similar and dissimilar features.

3. Technology Productivity Tools

Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity.

Students use productivity tools to collaborate in constructing technology-enhanced models, prepare publications, and produce other creative works.

Enter a URL to reach a site.  Search for information using teacher-selected sites.

Computers with internet. Satellite images.

Children will look at different types of satellite images and categorize different types of land use. These categories will be used in the next lesson.

Is Our Area Experiencing Urban Sprawl

4.233 Statistics and Probability systematically collect, organize, and describe data.

3. Technology Productivity Tools

1. Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity.

2. Students use productivity tools to collaborate in constructing technology-enhanced models, prepare publications, and produce other creative works.

Import a picture to the

computer using a

digital camera or

scanner. Resize or

crop graphics.

Computers with internet. Microsoft Excel (or other spreadsheet software). Google Maps. Smartboard (for demonstration purposes)

Children will use Google Maps to locate their home and then look at the satellite images. The image will be transferred into Excel and the surrounding land will be labeled using categorizes developed in the previous lesson.

How Does Land Use Affect You? A

4.420 Environment explain how the environment (topography, climate, soils, vegetation, animals) influences the way people live and work in Delaware.

4. Technology Communication Tools

1. Students use a variety of media and formats to communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences.

5. Technology Research Tools:

1.Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources.

Word Processing

Computers. Microsoft Word or other word processing software or devices.

Children will write questions about urban sprawl to interview peers and family about their perceptions of land use.

How Does Land Use Affect You? B

4.232 Statistics and Probability systematically collect, organize, and describe data.

5. Technology Research Tools:

1.Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources.

 

Use a spreadsheet to

do simple

calculations. (sum,

average, etc.) Insert

and delete rows and

columns.

Computers with internet Mambo or other content management systems. Excel for data analysis

Children will interview peers and family about their perceptions of land use.

What is Land Management

4.165 Critically Analyze and Evaluate Information connect and synthesize information from different sources.

2. Social, Ethical, and Human Issues

1. Students understand the ethical, cultural, and societal issues related to technology.

2. Students practice responsible use of technology systems, information, and software.

 

Enter a URL to reach a site.  Search for information using teacher-selected sites.

 

Computers with internet United Streaming videos.

Use the website to investigate different forms of land management. Interview local land use policy-makers.

How is Delaware Typing to Curb Urban Sprawl

4.316 Earth’s Dynamic Systems recognize the role that plants play in curbing erosion and run off and determine the degree to and manner in which Delawareans are working to preserve the natural areas such as wetlands, forests, and sand dunes.

5. Technology Research Tools:

1.Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources.

 

Enter a URL to reach a site.  Search for information using teacher-selected sites.

 

Internet and interviews.  Tape and digital recording devises.

Use the website to investigate Delaware’s policies toward land management.

Propose a Civic Action Plan

4.137 Oral Communication organize messages appropriate for the audience and the purpose.

4. Technology Communication Tools

1. Students use a variety of media and formats to communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences.

6. Technology Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making Tools

1. Students use technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions.

2. Students employ technology in the development of strategies for solving problems in the real world.

Word Processing

PowerPoint or other presentation media. Cameras and video recording devises.

Students will introduce their findings to their peers and propose a plan to help the community in a multimedia presentation.

The KDN or Kid’s Design Network (Teacher's Guide, 2005) integrates an inquiry-based model using technology as a communication and development tool between engineers and children. The KND curriculum challenges students to create an original invention to solve a real-life problem. Coincidentally, the third grade science unit culminates in an "Invention Convention". The KND site allows students to interact with engineers to test their project. The KND challenges involve chemical engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, or a blend of engineering disciplines. This program works in conjunction with the science unit to help facilitate and reinforce classroom concepts.

Back to the Table of Contents

Conclusion

 Creating a technologically advanced program requires support and computing proficiency from teachers as well as students. Transitioning educational practices to include technology on a daily basis requires that teachers develop high level computing skills. Schools must support teacher computer education as well as provide tools at that support each teacher’s computing ability.

Labeling computers as “technology” and teaching computer skills as technology may not be the best way to prepare students for their future. Knowing how to operate a computer, in today’s world, is critical to advancing technology as a whole. What education should strive to promote is being able to think logically and diversely, to use tools, and to pull information from different areas. Education should strive to promote innovation through technology.

 

 Proposed Project Curriculum

Grade

Subject

Concept

Project

First Grade

Math

Parts from whole

Create a simple presentation showing whole/part relationships of whole numbers less than 20.

ELA

I-Search Paper

Research an endangered animal and write paper about their findings.

Reading

Creating Online Books

Use PowerPoint to write stories. Begin to use hyperlinks to add dimension to stories. Inserting images to enhance story

Science

Seeds

Using camera and microscopes to observe different types of seed germination.

Social Studies

Mapping

Use Graphic software to create different types of maps.

Second Grade

Math

Place Value

Create a presentation that demonstrates understanding of ones, tens, and hundreds.

ELA

I-Search Paper

Research and write a report on a Native American tribe.

Reading

Creating Online Books

Use PowerPoint to write stories. Use to use hyperlinks to add dimension to stories. Inserting images to enhance story

Science

WISE

Students delve into how earthworms help the environment.

Social Studies

Market Day

Create a business plan and a poster about their businesses.

Third Grade

Math

Creating Online Books

Use PowerPoint to write stories. Use to use hyperlinks and sound to add dimension to stories. Inserting images to enhance story.

ELA

I-Search Paper

Research an owl and its habitat

Reading

Creating Online Books

Use PowerPoint to write stories. Use to use hyperlinks, sound, and animation to add dimension to stories. Inserting images to enhance story.

Science

Invention Convention

KDN Program

Social Studies

Timelines

Create a timeline using five famous Americans and relate each to a historical event.

Fourth Grade

Math

Multiplication Brochure

Use Numeracy tools and Microsoft Publisher to better understand multiplication. (Publications)

ELA

I-Search Paper

Research and write a report on the Underground Railroad in Delaware

Reading

Creating Online Books

Use digital video to write plays and produce a play. Use to use hyperlinks, sound, and animation to add dimension to stories. Inserting images and different types of video editing to enhance story.

Science

Project Learn - Urban Sprawl

Reference Scope and Sequence

Social Studies

Mapping

Use graphic software to created a layered map of Delaware looking at political, economic, and geographic features.

Fifth Grade

Math

Economics

Using Excel to create a functioning checkbook. Use AutoSum, if/then formulas to and Smart Fill.

ELA

I-Search Paper

Project Learn

Reading

Creating Online Books

Use digital video to write plays and produce a play. Use to use hyperlinks, sound, and animation to add dimension to stories. Inserting images and different types of video editing to enhance story.

Science

Project Learn/WISE - Recycling

Students research methods to promote recycling in the community.

Social Studies

Civil War

Students take on the role of a Civil War officer and use his or her skill to help his or her army will the war.

  

Back to the Table of Contents

References

 

Bernal, Y. (2005). Linden cafe. Retrieved Jul. 10, 2005, from Linden Cafe Home Page Web site: http://www.lindencafe.info/.

 

Bernal, Y. (2005). Project learn- based on ebam. Retrieved Jul. 08, 2005, from TunaRuna Web site: http://www.tunaruna.com/instruction/PBLP/PBLP.htm.

 

Delaware Center for Educational Technology, (2005). Computer skills growth chart. Retrieved Jul. 05, 2005, from Delaware Center for Educational Technology Web site: http://www.dcet.k12.de.us/instructional/skills/index.html.

 

Drupal.org. (2005). Retrieved Jul. 10, 2005, from Drupal.org Web site: http://www.drupal.org/.

 

Kie tour: Scaffolded knowledge integration. (n.d.). Retrieved Jul. 05, 2005, from KIE Project Web site: http://kie.berkeley.edu/KIE/tour/tour3.html.

 

Linden hill elementary. (n.d.). Retrieved Jul. 10, 2005, from Public School Review Web site: http://www.publicschoolreview.com/school_overview.php.

 

Linn, M. (1995). Designing Computer Learning Environments for Engineering and Computer Science: the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration Framework. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 4(2), 103-126.

 

Mambo: power in simplicity. (n.d.). Retrieved Jul. 10, 2005, from MamboServer Web site: http://www.mamboserver.com/.

 

Moersch, C. (2004). Loti framework characteristics and benchmarks. Retrieved Jul. 06, 2005, from About LoTi in Delaware Web site: http://www.dcet.k12.de.us/instructional/loti/lotilevelchar.html.

 

Moersch, C. (n.d.). Welcome to the loti connection. Retrieved Jul. 10, 2005, from The Loti Connection Web site: http://www.loticonnection.com/.

 

National Education Technology Standards Project, (n.d.). All children must be ready. Retrieved Jul. 05, 2005, from nsteNETS Web site: http://cnets.iste.org/intro2.html.

 

Other state's DOEs. (2005). Retrieved Jul. 10, 2005, from Indiana Department of Education Web site: http://www.doe.state.in.us/htmls/states.html

 

Project-based learning research. (2001). Retrieved Jul. 08, 2005, from Edutopia Web site: http://www.edutopia.org/php/article.php?id=Art_887&key=037.

 

Publications. (n.d.). Retrieved Jul. 10, 2005, from National Numeracy Strategy Web site: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/numeracy/publications/.

 

Sine, P. (2001). Retrieved Jul. 05, 2005, from Computer Skills Growth Chart Web site: http://www.udel.edu/sine/growth/idea/need.html.

 

Teacher's guide. (2005). Retrieved Jul. 08, 2005, from Kids Design Network Web site: http://www.dupagechildrensmuseum.org/kdn/index.html

 

Technology integration team web site. (n.d.). Retrieved Jul. 10, 2005, from Technology Integration Team Web Site Web site: http://rctech.redclay.k12.de.us/insttechweb/.

 

Technology foundation standards. (n.d.). Retrieved Jul. 05, 2005, from National Education Technology Standards Project Web site: http://cnets.iste.org/students/s_stands.html.

 

The official xoops page: powered by you. (n.d.). Retrieved Jul. 10, 2005, from The Official Xoops Page Web site: http://www.xoops.org/.

 

U.S. Department of Education, (n.d.). Improve student performance: Use technology . Retrieved Jul. 05, 2005, from No Child Left Behind Web site: http://www.ed.gov/teachers/how/tech/edpicks.jhtml?src=ln.

 

Welcome to geek log. (2005). Retrieved Jul. 10, 2005, from Geek Log: The Ultimate Web Log System Web site: http://www.geeklog.net/.

 

What is wise. (n.d.). Retrieved Jul. 08, 2005, from WISE Web site: http://wise.berkeley.edu/.

Back to the Table of Contents